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THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN CULTURAL TOURISM

Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1-2, 35 - 51, 29.12.2022

Öz

Social media, emerged due to the development of information and communication technologies, has become an integral part of people's lives and they are making extensive use of social media when deciding on any touristic activity. Social media has a very important role in cultural tourism, which is one of the alternative tourism types. People get information about the destination they will go through social media. At the same time, they increase the recognition and awareness of cultural tourism values through social media platforms. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the use of social media in cultural tourism. Within the scope of the study, social media, social media platforms, the use of social media in cultural tourism are discussed. At the end of the study, various suggestions that will enable the social media to be used more in cultural tourism are given.

Kaynakça

  • Aladwani, A. M. (2014). The 6As model of social content management. International Journal of Information Management, 34(2), 133-138.
  • Alexa. (2020). The top 500 sites on the web. https://www.alexa.com/topsites.
  • Alhabash, S., & Ma, M. (2017). A tale of four platforms: Motivations and uses of facebook, twitter, ınstagram, and snapchat among college students? Social Media+ Society.
  • Bradbury, K. (2011). The growing role of social media in tourism marketing (COMM 427).
  • Buhalis, D., (1998). Strategic use of information technologies in the tourism industry. Tourism Management, 19(5), 409-421.
  • Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008). Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the internet-The state of eTourism research. Tourism Management, 29(4), 609-623.
  • Buhler, J. E. (2006). Travel marketers hitch a ride with web 2.0. http://www.hotelmarketing.com/index.php/content/article/travel_marketers_hitch_a_ride_with_web_20/
  • Campbell, D. (2010). The new ecology of information: How the social media revolution challenges the university. Environment and Planning EPD: Societyand Space, 28(2), 193-201.
  • Carr, C. T., & Hayes, R. A. (2015). Social media: Defining, developing, and divining. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 23, 46-65.
  • Chatzithomas, N., Boutsouk, C., Hatzithomasb, L. & Zotosc, Y. (2014). Social media advertising platforms: a cross-cultural study. International Journal on Strategic Innovative Marketing, 1, doi:10.15556/IJSIM.01.02.002
  • Civelek, M. & Dalgın, T. (2013). Turizm pazarlamasında sosyal medya, turizm işletmeleri üzerine bir araştırma: Muğla örneği. 14. Ulusal Turizm Kongresi.
  • Cohen, H. (2020). Social Media Definitions. Actionable Marketing 101. https://heidicohen.com/ social-media-definition/
  • Chua, A., Servillo, L., Marcheggiani, E., & Moere, A. V. (2016). Mapping Cilento: Using geotagged social media data to characterize tourist flows in southern Italy. Tour. Manag. 57, 295-310.
  • Comunidad IEBS. (2013). La voz del patrimonio: La Alhambra de Granada. https:// comunidad.iebschool.com/laculturasocial/2013/12/17/la-voz-del-patrimonio-la-alhambra-de-granada/
  • Covarrubias, R. (2014). Evaluacion del potencial en municipios turı ´sticos a trave´s de metodologı´as participativas. El Caso de Los Municipios de la Zona Norte de Colima, Editorial Eumed.net, Me´xico.
  • Dickey, I. J., & Lewis, W. F. (2011). An overview of digital media and advertising. In Easting, M. S., Daugherty, T., & Burns, N. M. (Ed.), Digital media and advertising: User generated content consumption (pp. 1-31). NY Information Science Reference.
  • Dijilopedi (2021). Türkiye internet, sosyal medya ve mobil kullanım istatistikleri 2021, https://dijilopedi.com/2021-dunya-internet-sosyal-medya ve-mobil-kullanim-istatistikleri/
  • Europetour. (2015). Social media guidelines for cultural tourism in rural area. https://www.europetour.tips/wpcontent/uploads/2018/07/english_social_media_guidelines.pdf
  • Facebook. (2021). Company Info About Facebook. https://about.fb.com/company-info/
  • Farahani, L. M., Motamed, B., & Ghadırınıa, M. (2018). Investigating heritage sites through the lens of Social media. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 42(1), 199-211.
  • Gartner, W.C. (1993). Image formation process. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2(2/3), 191-215.
  • Gorji, A. S., Almeida-García, F. & Melé, P. M. (2021). Analysis of the projected image of tourism destinations on photographs: The case of Iran on Instagram. Anatolia, 1-19.
  • Hemsley, B., & Dann, S. (2015). Social media and social marketing in relation to facilitated communication: harnessing the affordances of social media for knowledge translation. Evid Commun Assess Interv, 8(4), 187–206.
  • Jacobsen J.K.S., & Munar A.M. (2012). Tourist information search and destination choice in a digital age. Tour Manag Perspect, 1, 39–47.
  • Junco, R. (2013). Comparing actual and self-reported measures of facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 626-631.
  • Kalvet, T., Olesk, M., Tits, M., & Raun, J. (2020). Innovative tools for tourism and cultural tourism impact assessment. Sustainability, 12(18), 74-70.
  • Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizon, 53(1), 59-68.
  • Karapanos, E., Teixeira, P., & Gouveia, R. (2016). Need fulfillment and experiences on social media: A case on facebook and whatsapp. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 888-897.
  • Khan, M. L. (2017). Social media engagement: What motivates user participation and consumption on youtube?. Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 236-247.
  • Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons, 54(3), 241–251.
  • Kozinets, R. V. (1999). E-tribalized marketing? The strategic implications of virtual communities of consumption. European Management Journal, 17(3), 252-264.
  • Liasidou, S. (2018). Representation of cultural tourism on the web: Critical discourse analysis of tourism websites. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(3), 327-347.
  • Lim, W.M. & Hall, M. J. (2008). Pricing consistency across direct and indirect distribution channels in South West UK hotels. J Vacat Mark, 14(4), 331–344.
  • Liu, I., L. B., Cheung, C. M. K., & Lee, M. K. O. (2010). Understanding Twitter Usage: What Drive People Continue T Otweet. ın PACIS 2010 Proceedings (p. 92). Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems: Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • Luo, N., Zhang, M., & Liu, W. (2015). The effects of value co-creation practices on building harmonious brand community and achieving brand loyalty on social media in China. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 492-499.
  • Manap, K. A. (2013). The role of user generated content (UGC) in social media for tourism sector. WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Marinakou, E., Giousmpasoglou, C., & Paliktzoglou, V. (2015). The ımpact of social media on cultural tourism. IGI Global. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7401-1.ch012
  • Marketing Science Institute (2016). 2016-18 research priorities. www.msi.org/uploads/articles/MSI_RP16-18.pdf.
  • Mele, E., Kerkhof, P. & Cantoni, L. (2021). Analyzing cultural tourism promotion on Instagram: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 38(3), 326-340.
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary (2011). Social network. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20network.
  • McKercher, B., & Du Cros, H. (2002). Cultural tourism. The partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management. New York: The Haworth Hospitality Press.
  • Munar, A. M. (2010). Digital exhibitionism: The age of exposure. Culture Unbound, 2, 401–422.
  • Munar, A. M., & Ooi, C. S. (2012). What social media tell us about the heritage experience. CLCS Working Paper Series.
  • Neelotpaul, B. (2010). A study on interactivity and online branding. Adv Manag, 3(3), 13-17.
  • Nguyen, T. T, Camacho, D., & Jung, J. E. (2017). Identifying and ranking cultural heritage resources on geotagged social media for smart cultural tourism services. Pers Ubiquit Comput, 21, 267-279.
  • Nilbe, K., Ahas, R., & Silm, S. (2014). Evaluating the travel distances of events visitors and regular visitors using mobile positioning data: The case of Estonia. J. Urban Technol, 21, 91-107.
  • Nisar, T. M., & Whitehead, C. (2016). Brand interactions and social media: Enhancing user loyalty through social networking sites. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 743-753.
  • Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife. (2016). Observatorio turı´stico. www.alhambrapatronato.es/index.php/Observatorio-Turistico/57/0/
  • Peco-Torres, F., Polo-Pen˜a, A. I., & Frı´as-Jamilena, D. M. (2021). Brand personality in cultural tourism through social media. Tourısm Review, 76(1), 164-183.
  • Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, P., & Aljas, A. (2009). Digital cultural heritage–challenging museums, archives and users. Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics, 3(1), 109–127.
  • Pekin, F. (2011). Çözüm: Kültür turizmi. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Pratiwi, W. & Nagari, B., & Samsirina (2021). Creative planning in place identity, local distinctiveness, and social media users: Cultural tourism destination of Setu Babakan, Jakarta. 10.2991/assehr.k.211126.017.
  • Qi, S., Cora Un In Wong, C. U. I, Chen, N., Jia Rong, J., & Du, J. (2018). Profiling Macau cultural tourists by using user‑generated content from online social media. Information Technology & Tourism, 20, 217–236.
  • Qiu, Q., & Zhang, M. (2021). Using content analysis to probe the cognitive ımage of ıntangible cultural heritage tourism: an exploration of Chinese social media. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf, 10, 240, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040240.
  • Rapp, A., Beitelspacher, L.S., Grewal, D., & Hughes, D. E. (2013). Understanding social media effects across seller, retailer, and consumer interactions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(5), 547-566.
  • Richards, G. (2018) Cultural tourism: A review of recent research and trends. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 12-21.
  • Richards, G., & Marques, L. (2018). Creating synergies between cultural policy and tourism for permanent and temporary citizens. Leading City of Agenda 21 for culture United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG).
  • Saçılık, Y. M., & Toptaş, A. (2017). Kültür turizmi ve etkileri konusunda turizm öğrencilerinin algılarının belirlenmesi, Turizm Akademik Dergisi, 4(2), 107-119.
  • Siamagka, N-T, Christodoulides, G., & Michaelidou, N. (2015). The impact of comparative affective states on online brand perceptions. Int Mark Rev, 32(3/4), 438-454.
  • Smith, M. K. (2009). Issues in cultural tourism studies. New York: Routledge.
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  • Surugiu, M. R. & Surugiu, C. (2015). Heritage tourism entrepreneurship and social media: opportunities and challenges. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 188, 74-81.
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KÜLTÜR TURİZMİNDE SOSYAL MEDYA KULLANIMI

Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1-2, 35 - 51, 29.12.2022

Öz

Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin gelişmesiyle ortaya çıkan sosyal medya, insanların hayatlarının ayrılmaz bir parçası haline gelmiştir ve kişiler herhangi bir turistik faaliyete karar verirken sosyal medyadan yaygın bir şekilde yararlanmaktadır. Alternatif turizm türlerinden biri olan kültür turizminde sosyal medyanın çok önemli bir yeri vardır. İnsanlar, gidecekleri destinasyon hakkında bilgiyi sosyal medyadan elde etmektedirler. Aynı zamanda sosyal medya platformları aracılığıyla kültür turizmi çekiciliklerinin tanınırlığını ve bilinirliğini artırmaktadırlar. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın amacı, sosyal medyanın kültür turizminde kullanımını incelemektir. Çalışma kapsamında; sosyal medya, sosyal medya platformları, sosyal medyanın kültür turizminde kullanımına ilişkin konular ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın sonunda ise, sosyal medyanın kültür turizminde daha fazla kullanılmasını sağlayacak çeşitli önerilere yer verilmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Aladwani, A. M. (2014). The 6As model of social content management. International Journal of Information Management, 34(2), 133-138.
  • Alexa. (2020). The top 500 sites on the web. https://www.alexa.com/topsites.
  • Alhabash, S., & Ma, M. (2017). A tale of four platforms: Motivations and uses of facebook, twitter, ınstagram, and snapchat among college students? Social Media+ Society.
  • Bradbury, K. (2011). The growing role of social media in tourism marketing (COMM 427).
  • Buhalis, D., (1998). Strategic use of information technologies in the tourism industry. Tourism Management, 19(5), 409-421.
  • Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008). Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the internet-The state of eTourism research. Tourism Management, 29(4), 609-623.
  • Buhler, J. E. (2006). Travel marketers hitch a ride with web 2.0. http://www.hotelmarketing.com/index.php/content/article/travel_marketers_hitch_a_ride_with_web_20/
  • Campbell, D. (2010). The new ecology of information: How the social media revolution challenges the university. Environment and Planning EPD: Societyand Space, 28(2), 193-201.
  • Carr, C. T., & Hayes, R. A. (2015). Social media: Defining, developing, and divining. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 23, 46-65.
  • Chatzithomas, N., Boutsouk, C., Hatzithomasb, L. & Zotosc, Y. (2014). Social media advertising platforms: a cross-cultural study. International Journal on Strategic Innovative Marketing, 1, doi:10.15556/IJSIM.01.02.002
  • Civelek, M. & Dalgın, T. (2013). Turizm pazarlamasında sosyal medya, turizm işletmeleri üzerine bir araştırma: Muğla örneği. 14. Ulusal Turizm Kongresi.
  • Cohen, H. (2020). Social Media Definitions. Actionable Marketing 101. https://heidicohen.com/ social-media-definition/
  • Chua, A., Servillo, L., Marcheggiani, E., & Moere, A. V. (2016). Mapping Cilento: Using geotagged social media data to characterize tourist flows in southern Italy. Tour. Manag. 57, 295-310.
  • Comunidad IEBS. (2013). La voz del patrimonio: La Alhambra de Granada. https:// comunidad.iebschool.com/laculturasocial/2013/12/17/la-voz-del-patrimonio-la-alhambra-de-granada/
  • Covarrubias, R. (2014). Evaluacion del potencial en municipios turı ´sticos a trave´s de metodologı´as participativas. El Caso de Los Municipios de la Zona Norte de Colima, Editorial Eumed.net, Me´xico.
  • Dickey, I. J., & Lewis, W. F. (2011). An overview of digital media and advertising. In Easting, M. S., Daugherty, T., & Burns, N. M. (Ed.), Digital media and advertising: User generated content consumption (pp. 1-31). NY Information Science Reference.
  • Dijilopedi (2021). Türkiye internet, sosyal medya ve mobil kullanım istatistikleri 2021, https://dijilopedi.com/2021-dunya-internet-sosyal-medya ve-mobil-kullanim-istatistikleri/
  • Europetour. (2015). Social media guidelines for cultural tourism in rural area. https://www.europetour.tips/wpcontent/uploads/2018/07/english_social_media_guidelines.pdf
  • Facebook. (2021). Company Info About Facebook. https://about.fb.com/company-info/
  • Farahani, L. M., Motamed, B., & Ghadırınıa, M. (2018). Investigating heritage sites through the lens of Social media. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 42(1), 199-211.
  • Gartner, W.C. (1993). Image formation process. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2(2/3), 191-215.
  • Gorji, A. S., Almeida-García, F. & Melé, P. M. (2021). Analysis of the projected image of tourism destinations on photographs: The case of Iran on Instagram. Anatolia, 1-19.
  • Hemsley, B., & Dann, S. (2015). Social media and social marketing in relation to facilitated communication: harnessing the affordances of social media for knowledge translation. Evid Commun Assess Interv, 8(4), 187–206.
  • Jacobsen J.K.S., & Munar A.M. (2012). Tourist information search and destination choice in a digital age. Tour Manag Perspect, 1, 39–47.
  • Junco, R. (2013). Comparing actual and self-reported measures of facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 626-631.
  • Kalvet, T., Olesk, M., Tits, M., & Raun, J. (2020). Innovative tools for tourism and cultural tourism impact assessment. Sustainability, 12(18), 74-70.
  • Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizon, 53(1), 59-68.
  • Karapanos, E., Teixeira, P., & Gouveia, R. (2016). Need fulfillment and experiences on social media: A case on facebook and whatsapp. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 888-897.
  • Khan, M. L. (2017). Social media engagement: What motivates user participation and consumption on youtube?. Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 236-247.
  • Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons, 54(3), 241–251.
  • Kozinets, R. V. (1999). E-tribalized marketing? The strategic implications of virtual communities of consumption. European Management Journal, 17(3), 252-264.
  • Liasidou, S. (2018). Representation of cultural tourism on the web: Critical discourse analysis of tourism websites. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(3), 327-347.
  • Lim, W.M. & Hall, M. J. (2008). Pricing consistency across direct and indirect distribution channels in South West UK hotels. J Vacat Mark, 14(4), 331–344.
  • Liu, I., L. B., Cheung, C. M. K., & Lee, M. K. O. (2010). Understanding Twitter Usage: What Drive People Continue T Otweet. ın PACIS 2010 Proceedings (p. 92). Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems: Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • Luo, N., Zhang, M., & Liu, W. (2015). The effects of value co-creation practices on building harmonious brand community and achieving brand loyalty on social media in China. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 492-499.
  • Manap, K. A. (2013). The role of user generated content (UGC) in social media for tourism sector. WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Marinakou, E., Giousmpasoglou, C., & Paliktzoglou, V. (2015). The ımpact of social media on cultural tourism. IGI Global. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7401-1.ch012
  • Marketing Science Institute (2016). 2016-18 research priorities. www.msi.org/uploads/articles/MSI_RP16-18.pdf.
  • Mele, E., Kerkhof, P. & Cantoni, L. (2021). Analyzing cultural tourism promotion on Instagram: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 38(3), 326-340.
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary (2011). Social network. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20network.
  • McKercher, B., & Du Cros, H. (2002). Cultural tourism. The partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management. New York: The Haworth Hospitality Press.
  • Munar, A. M. (2010). Digital exhibitionism: The age of exposure. Culture Unbound, 2, 401–422.
  • Munar, A. M., & Ooi, C. S. (2012). What social media tell us about the heritage experience. CLCS Working Paper Series.
  • Neelotpaul, B. (2010). A study on interactivity and online branding. Adv Manag, 3(3), 13-17.
  • Nguyen, T. T, Camacho, D., & Jung, J. E. (2017). Identifying and ranking cultural heritage resources on geotagged social media for smart cultural tourism services. Pers Ubiquit Comput, 21, 267-279.
  • Nilbe, K., Ahas, R., & Silm, S. (2014). Evaluating the travel distances of events visitors and regular visitors using mobile positioning data: The case of Estonia. J. Urban Technol, 21, 91-107.
  • Nisar, T. M., & Whitehead, C. (2016). Brand interactions and social media: Enhancing user loyalty through social networking sites. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 743-753.
  • Patronato de la Alhambra y Generalife. (2016). Observatorio turı´stico. www.alhambrapatronato.es/index.php/Observatorio-Turistico/57/0/
  • Peco-Torres, F., Polo-Pen˜a, A. I., & Frı´as-Jamilena, D. M. (2021). Brand personality in cultural tourism through social media. Tourısm Review, 76(1), 164-183.
  • Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, P., & Aljas, A. (2009). Digital cultural heritage–challenging museums, archives and users. Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics, 3(1), 109–127.
  • Pekin, F. (2011). Çözüm: Kültür turizmi. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Pratiwi, W. & Nagari, B., & Samsirina (2021). Creative planning in place identity, local distinctiveness, and social media users: Cultural tourism destination of Setu Babakan, Jakarta. 10.2991/assehr.k.211126.017.
  • Qi, S., Cora Un In Wong, C. U. I, Chen, N., Jia Rong, J., & Du, J. (2018). Profiling Macau cultural tourists by using user‑generated content from online social media. Information Technology & Tourism, 20, 217–236.
  • Qiu, Q., & Zhang, M. (2021). Using content analysis to probe the cognitive ımage of ıntangible cultural heritage tourism: an exploration of Chinese social media. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf, 10, 240, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10040240.
  • Rapp, A., Beitelspacher, L.S., Grewal, D., & Hughes, D. E. (2013). Understanding social media effects across seller, retailer, and consumer interactions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(5), 547-566.
  • Richards, G. (2018) Cultural tourism: A review of recent research and trends. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 12-21.
  • Richards, G., & Marques, L. (2018). Creating synergies between cultural policy and tourism for permanent and temporary citizens. Leading City of Agenda 21 for culture United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG).
  • Saçılık, Y. M., & Toptaş, A. (2017). Kültür turizmi ve etkileri konusunda turizm öğrencilerinin algılarının belirlenmesi, Turizm Akademik Dergisi, 4(2), 107-119.
  • Siamagka, N-T, Christodoulides, G., & Michaelidou, N. (2015). The impact of comparative affective states on online brand perceptions. Int Mark Rev, 32(3/4), 438-454.
  • Smith, M. K. (2009). Issues in cultural tourism studies. New York: Routledge.
  • Statista (2022). https://www.statista.com/statistics/272014/global-social-networks-ranked-by-number-of-users/
  • Stec, C. (2015). Social media definitions: The ultimate glossary of terms you should know.
  • Streitfeld, D. (2011). Why, on the web, so much is totally awesome. International Herald Tribune, 22, 15.
  • Surugiu, M. R. & Surugiu, C. (2015). Heritage tourism entrepreneurship and social media: opportunities and challenges. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 188, 74-81.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Otelcilik, Konaklama, Spor ve Turizm
Bölüm MAKALELER
Yazarlar

Şükran KARACA> (Sorumlu Yazar)
SİVAS CUMHURİYET ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-0268-1810
Türkiye


Gülden POLAT>
SİVAS CUMHURİYET ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9658-5247
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 29 Aralık 2022
Gönderilme Tarihi 18 Mart 2022
Kabul Tarihi 28 Nisan 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1-2

Kaynak Göster

APA Karaca, Ş. & Polat, G. (2022). THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN CULTURAL TOURISM . Sivas Interdisipliner Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi , 5 (1-2) , 35-51 . Retrieved from http://sita.cumhuriyet.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/74441/1090046